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  1. Octavian as Augustus, 27 BC (1)
  2. Tiberius augustus, 14 (1)
  3. In the name of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius (1)
  4. Nero augustus, 54 (1)
  5. Vespasian, 69 (2)
  6. Titus caesar, 69 (1)
  7. Domitian augustus, 81 (1)
  8. Domitia, wife of Domitian (1)
  9. Nerva, 96 (1)
  10. Trajan, 98 (2)
  11. Matidia, daughter of Trajan (1)
  12. Hadrian, 117 (3)
  13. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 (4)
  14. Faustina I, wife of Antoninus Pius (3)
  15. Marcus Aurelius caesar, 139 (1)
  16. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius and daughter of Antoninus Pius (1)
  17. Commodus, 177 (1)
  18. Crispina, wife of Commodus (1)
  19. Pertinax, January 1st (1)
  20. Septimius Severus, 193 (4)
  21. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus (1)
  22. Caracalla, 198 (5)
  23. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla (1)
  24. Geta caesar, 198 (2)
  25. Elagabalus 218 (2)
  26. Severus Alexander, 222 (1)
  27. Gordian III, 238 (1)
  28. Philip II caesar, 244 (1)
  29. Trajan Decius, 249 (1)
  30. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius. (1)
  31. Trebonianus Gallus, 251 (2)
  32. Volusian, 251 (1)
  33. Gallienus, 253 (3)
  34. Postumus, 260 (1)
  35. Aurelian, 270 (1)
  36. Tacitus, 275 (1)
  37. Probus, 276 (3)
  38. Carus, 282 (1)
  39. Numerian augustus, 283 (1)
  40. Carinus, 283 (1)
  41. Julian I of Pannonia, October (1)
  42. Diocletian, 284-305 (3)
  43. Maximianus augustus, first reign 286 (3)
  44. Constantius I Chlorus caesar, 293 (1)
  45. Constantius I Chlorus augustus, 305 (1)
  46. Galerius Maximianus caesar, 293 (1)
  47. Severus II caesar, 305 (1)
  48. Maximinus II Daia caesar, 305 (1)
  49. Maxentius, 307 (1)
  50. Licinius I, 308 (1)
  51. Licinius II caesar, 317 (1)
  52. Constantine I, 307 (7)
  53. Crispus caesar, 316 (1)
  54. Constantine II caesar, 316 (2)
  55. Constantius III, 8th February (1)
  56. Justa Gratia Honoria, sister of Valentinian III (1)



Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich   |   Auction 102   |   24 October 2017 Sort by Lot-NumberSort by Estimate
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Lot 535





Estimate: 12'500 CHF   |   Starting price: 10'000 CHF Price realized: 18'500 CHF
Aureus 203-204, AV 7.08 g. ANTONINVS – PIVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev. INDVLGENTIA AVGG Cybele-Dea Caelestis, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, riding lion running r. over waves gushing from rock; in exergue, IN CARTH. C 96 var. (CART, a slip?). BMC 280 note. RIC 130b. Biaggi 1175 (this coin). Calicó 2678 (this coin).
Very rare. Two almost invisible marks, otherwise extremely fine
Ex Hess-Leu 7 April 1960, 361 and NAC 49, 2008, Biaggi de Blasys, 324 sales.

This interesting type, INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH (‘the indulgence of the Augusti towards Carthage’), suggests Septimius Severus and Caracalla made improvements to Carthage, the North African capital to the west of the imperial family’s native Tripolitana. The evidence is slim, but it seems the imperial family and its entourage crossed to Africa in 202, a few months after they had returned to Rome from a five-year absence in the East. The family apparently wintered in Lepcis Magna, Severus’ home town (which he may not have visited for about thirty years) and they returned to Rome in the following year. In addition to touring the region and overseeing building projects, the Severan entourage was in North Africa to deal with military matters, including a campaign against the tribes who raided Roman provinces from the deserts to the south and east. The reverse depicts a towered goddess sitting upon a lion that springs from a rocky outcrop from which water flows. This latter feature has led to the suggestion that aqueducts or waterworks of some kind in Carthage were constructed or repaired at state expense. A similar scene appears on imperial coins struck by Commodus in 191/2, and earlier still on rare imperial bronzes of Faustina Senior, though in both cases without the rocks and flowing water. The goddess riding the lion is Cybele (Mater Deum; ‘mother of the Gods’) or Dea Caelestis (‘celestial goddess’), essentially the Roman identification of Tanit (the patron goddess of Carthage), who may be more precisely understood as a moon-goddess, who the Romans equated with Juno Caelestis or Cybele. On this aureus she holds a sceptre and a thunderbolt, though on some other coins from the series she holds a sceptre and a musical instrument that is a tympanum (a small drum or tambourine) or a crotalum (castanets or cymbals). Curiously, more than a decade later Elagabalus chose to marry his Emesan sun-god Heliogabalus to the Carthaginian moon-goddess Dea Caelestis, thus uniting sun and moon deities and symbolically linking the Syrian and North African ancestries of the Severan dynasty.

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