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  1. Octavian as Augustus, 27 BC (1)
  2. Tiberius augustus, 14 (1)
  3. In the name of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius (1)
  4. Nero augustus, 54 (1)
  5. Vespasian, 69 (2)
  6. Titus caesar, 69 (1)
  7. Domitian augustus, 81 (1)
  8. Domitia, wife of Domitian (1)
  9. Nerva, 96 (1)
  10. Trajan, 98 (2)
  11. Matidia, daughter of Trajan (1)
  12. Hadrian, 117 (3)
  13. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 (4)
  14. Faustina I, wife of Antoninus Pius (3)
  15. Marcus Aurelius caesar, 139 (1)
  16. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius and daughter of Antoninus Pius (1)
  17. Commodus, 177 (1)
  18. Crispina, wife of Commodus (1)
  19. Pertinax, January 1st (1)
  20. Septimius Severus, 193 (4)
  21. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus (1)
  22. Caracalla, 198 (5)
  23. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla (1)
  24. Geta caesar, 198 (2)
  25. Elagabalus 218 (2)
  26. Severus Alexander, 222 (1)
  27. Gordian III, 238 (1)
  28. Philip II caesar, 244 (1)
  29. Trajan Decius, 249 (1)
  30. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius. (1)
  31. Trebonianus Gallus, 251 (2)
  32. Volusian, 251 (1)
  33. Gallienus, 253 (3)
  34. Postumus, 260 (1)
  35. Aurelian, 270 (1)
  36. Tacitus, 275 (1)
  37. Probus, 276 (3)
  38. Carus, 282 (1)
  39. Numerian augustus, 283 (1)
  40. Carinus, 283 (1)
  41. Julian I of Pannonia, October (1)
  42. Diocletian, 284-305 (3)
  43. Maximianus augustus, first reign 286 (3)
  44. Constantius I Chlorus caesar, 293 (1)
  45. Constantius I Chlorus augustus, 305 (1)
  46. Galerius Maximianus caesar, 293 (1)
  47. Severus II caesar, 305 (1)
  48. Maximinus II Daia caesar, 305 (1)
  49. Maxentius, 307 (1)
  50. Licinius I, 308 (1)
  51. Licinius II caesar, 317 (1)
  52. Constantine I, 307 (7)
  53. Crispus caesar, 316 (1)
  54. Constantine II caesar, 316 (2)
  55. Constantius III, 8th February (1)
  56. Justa Gratia Honoria, sister of Valentinian III (1)

Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich   |   Auction 102   |   24 October 2017 Sort by Lot-NumberSort by Estimate
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Lot 549

Estimate: 12'500 CHF   |   Starting price: 10'000 CHF Price realized: 14'000 CHF
Binio 251, AV 5.46 g. IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust r. Rev. IVNONI M – ARTIALI Circular distyle temple with Corinthian columns (Temple of Juno), decorated with two garlands; within, statue of Juno, holding two corn ears in extended r. hand, seated facing on winged throne. C –. RIC –, cf. 54 (antoninianus). Calicó –.
Apparently unique and unrecorded. A bold portrait and an interesting reverse composition.
A light scrape on obverse, otherwise good very fine / about extremely fine
Ex CNG sale 84, 2010, 1320.
In June A.D. 251, the father and son co-emperors, Trajan Decius and Herennius Etruscus, were killed while leading a punitive campaign against the Goths. Upon learning of the disaster, Decius’ second son, Hostilian, claimed the imperial purple in Rome while the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus as its choice for emperor. It was a recipe for yet another destructive civil war, but disaster was diverted when Gallus agreed to share power with Hostilian and adopted him as his son. The arrangement did not last long, however, because Hostilian was carried off by the plague of Cyprian later the same year. Realising that the problems of the Roman Empire were more than one emperor could handle, Trebonianus Gallus appointed his son, Volusianus, to be his co-emperor still in A.D. 251.
New crises broke out almost immediately. An Antiochene nobleman named Mariades raised a revolt in Syria and Cappadocia before fleeing to the court of the Sasanian king Shapur I. Gallus ordered an invasion of Persian territory to punish Shapur for aiding the rebel, but his forces were taken by surprise and largely destroyed at the Battle of Barbalissos in A.D. 253. The loss of such a large Roman army left the eastern provinces poorly defended and allowed the Sasanian king to tighten his control on Armenia and overrun Syria. He even ravaged the major administrative centre of Antioch on the Orontes without Roman military opposition.

The inability of Gallus to stop the devastation led to the rise of Sampsiceramus, a local dynast in Emesa. Taking the situation into his own hands, he raised an army and forced Shapur I to withdraw from Syria. Inevitably, Sampsiceramus proclaimed himself rival emperor under the name of Uranius Antoninus. As if this was not bad enough, Scythian tribes from the Russian steps crossed the Danube and also crossed into Asia Minor where they plundered the provinces, even burning the famous Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Again, Gallus could do very little. When the Goths also invaded Moesia Inferior at the same time, it was Aemilian, the governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, who pushed them back and, predictably, was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers.
Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian were in dire straits. The Empire seemed to be disintegrating before their eyes and Aemilian was on the way to challenge their rule at Rome. Gallus recalled the legions in Gaul in order to oppose the usurper, but his forces were overcome by those of Aemilian before Volusian arrived with his army. After this crowning defeat, Gallus was reportedly slain by his own men who went over to Aemilian.
This beautiful gold binio of Trebonianus Gallus employs long obverse and reverse legends that associate it with a special emission of gold medallions struck to celebrate his elevation to the position of Augustus in A.D. 251. The detailed architectural reverse features the temple of Juno Martialis, the mother of the Roman war god Mars. Her image and her temple commonly appear on coins of Gallus and Volusian, prompting the suggestion that her cult was specially promoted by the father and son co-emperors. This is perhaps unsurprising considering how frequently they faced the prospect of conflict and defeat: Gallus and his son needed all the divine aid they could get. Alas, as their history shows, their prayers seem to have fallen most frequently on deaf ears.

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