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  1. Octavian as Augustus, 27 BC (1)
  2. Tiberius augustus, 14 (1)
  3. In the name of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius (1)
  4. Nero augustus, 54 (1)
  5. Vespasian, 69 (2)
  6. Titus caesar, 69 (1)
  7. Domitian augustus, 81 (1)
  8. Domitia, wife of Domitian (1)
  9. Nerva, 96 (1)
  10. Trajan, 98 (2)
  11. Matidia, daughter of Trajan (1)
  12. Hadrian, 117 (3)
  13. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 (4)
  14. Faustina I, wife of Antoninus Pius (3)
  15. Marcus Aurelius caesar, 139 (1)
  16. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius and daughter of Antoninus Pius (1)
  17. Commodus, 177 (1)
  18. Crispina, wife of Commodus (1)
  19. Pertinax, January 1st (1)
  20. Septimius Severus, 193 (4)
  21. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus (1)
  22. Caracalla, 198 (5)
  23. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla (1)
  24. Geta caesar, 198 (2)
  25. Elagabalus 218 (2)
  26. Severus Alexander, 222 (1)
  27. Gordian III, 238 (1)
  28. Philip II caesar, 244 (1)
  29. Trajan Decius, 249 (1)
  30. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius. (1)
  31. Trebonianus Gallus, 251 (2)
  32. Volusian, 251 (1)
  33. Gallienus, 253 (3)
  34. Postumus, 260 (1)
  35. Aurelian, 270 (1)
  36. Tacitus, 275 (1)
  37. Probus, 276 (3)
  38. Carus, 282 (1)
  39. Numerian augustus, 283 (1)
  40. Carinus, 283 (1)
  41. Julian I of Pannonia, October (1)
  42. Diocletian, 284-305 (3)
  43. Maximianus augustus, first reign 286 (3)
  44. Constantius I Chlorus caesar, 293 (1)
  45. Constantius I Chlorus augustus, 305 (1)
  46. Galerius Maximianus caesar, 293 (1)
  47. Severus II caesar, 305 (1)
  48. Maximinus II Daia caesar, 305 (1)
  49. Maxentius, 307 (1)
  50. Licinius I, 308 (1)
  51. Licinius II caesar, 317 (1)
  52. Constantine I, 307 (7)
  53. Crispus caesar, 316 (1)
  54. Constantine II caesar, 316 (2)
  55. Constantius III, 8th February (1)
  56. Justa Gratia Honoria, sister of Valentinian III (1)



Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich   |   Auction 102   |   24 October 2017 Sort by Lot-NumberSort by Estimate
Online bidding ends:  24 October 2017 10:00 CEST

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Lot 568





Estimate: 20'000 CHF   |   Starting price: 16'000 CHF
CHF  
Aureus, Treveri circa 295-305, AV 5.47 g. MAXIMI – ANVS AVG Laureate head r. Rev. PACATORES G – E – NTIVM Maximianus standing facing, head l., on quadriga, holding branch in r. hand. In r. field, soldier leads horses; in exergue, TR. C 424 var. (MAXIMIANVS P F AVG). RIC 66. Depeyrot 4/8. Calicó 4714 (these dies).
Of the highest rarity, only three specimens listed by Depeyrot. A very interesting
and finely engraved reverse composition and a wonderful reddish tone.
Extremely fine / good extremely fine
Ex Rauch sale 89, 2011, 2015.
The scene on the reverse of this aureus depicts Maximian as triumphator holding the palm branch of victory and riding in a quadriga. It probably refers to Maximian’s triumphal parade celebrated at Carthage and at Rome in A.D. 298 and 299 following his successful campaigns against Frankish pirates and the Moors (Berber tribesmen) of Mauretania, who had been making increasingly severe attacks into the territory of Carthage and the surrounding regions. In A.D. 297, Maximian and a large army crossed from Hispania into Mauretania and inflicted such losses on the Moors that they were driven back to their homes in the Atlas Mountains. Realizing that the problem was not fully solved and that the Moors would eventually return to their raiding, Maximian paused at Carthage for the winter and then marched against the Moors in their own country in A.D. 298. Despite the difficulties of the terrain and the guerilla tactics of the enemy, Maximian devastated large swathes of Moorish territory, killed as many as he could, and drove the survivors into the Sahara. As the author Tacitus noted already in his Germania (c. A.D. 98), it was from such destruction that Roman peace was made. Thus Maximian is rightly described on this coin as a pacator gentium – “a pacifier of the nations.”
There is some disagreement over the identity of the helmeted figure standing to the right of the chariot seemingly leading the quadriga, although this is rendered somewhat unclear by the poor use of perspective in late antique art. This figure has been variously described as Virtus (the personification of Roman bravery and military prowess) or Roma because both personifications were normally depicted as helmeted Amazons with one bare breast. However, it seems somewhat more likely that Roma is intended here since the figure carries a sceptre. While Virtus and Roma are very similar in appearance, only Roma was fit to rule.
It is unclear whether the plural of the reverse legend (PACATORES rather than PACATOR) should be taken to describe Maximian in the quadriga and Roma leading it or whether it refers to Maximian together with his tetrarchic colleague, Diocletian, who celebrated a great triumph over the Sasanian Persians in A.D. 303. This particular triumph was combined with the celebration of the vicennalia (20th anniversary) of Diocletian’s reign and the decennalia (10th anniversary) of the Tetrarchy. On such a momentous and retrospective occasion as this we might expect Maximian to cast himself and his colleague both as the great pacifiers of the nations.

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