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  1. Octavian as Augustus, 27 BC (1)
  2. Tiberius augustus, 14 (1)
  3. In the name of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius (1)
  4. Nero augustus, 54 (1)
  5. Vespasian, 69 (2)
  6. Titus caesar, 69 (1)
  7. Domitian augustus, 81 (1)
  8. Domitia, wife of Domitian (1)
  9. Nerva, 96 (1)
  10. Trajan, 98 (2)
  11. Matidia, daughter of Trajan (1)
  12. Hadrian, 117 (3)
  13. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 (4)
  14. Faustina I, wife of Antoninus Pius (3)
  15. Marcus Aurelius caesar, 139 (1)
  16. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius and daughter of Antoninus Pius (1)
  17. Commodus, 177 (1)
  18. Crispina, wife of Commodus (1)
  19. Pertinax, January 1st (1)
  20. Septimius Severus, 193 (4)
  21. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus (1)
  22. Caracalla, 198 (5)
  23. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla (1)
  24. Geta caesar, 198 (2)
  25. Elagabalus 218 (2)
  26. Severus Alexander, 222 (1)
  27. Gordian III, 238 (1)
  28. Philip II caesar, 244 (1)
  29. Trajan Decius, 249 (1)
  30. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius. (1)
  31. Trebonianus Gallus, 251 (2)
  32. Volusian, 251 (1)
  33. Gallienus, 253 (3)
  34. Postumus, 260 (1)
  35. Aurelian, 270 (1)
  36. Tacitus, 275 (1)
  37. Probus, 276 (3)
  38. Carus, 282 (1)
  39. Numerian augustus, 283 (1)
  40. Carinus, 283 (1)
  41. Julian I of Pannonia, October (1)
  42. Diocletian, 284-305 (3)
  43. Maximianus augustus, first reign 286 (3)
  44. Constantius I Chlorus caesar, 293 (1)
  45. Constantius I Chlorus augustus, 305 (1)
  46. Galerius Maximianus caesar, 293 (1)
  47. Severus II caesar, 305 (1)
  48. Maximinus II Daia caesar, 305 (1)
  49. Maxentius, 307 (1)
  50. Licinius I, 308 (1)
  51. Licinius II caesar, 317 (1)
  52. Constantine I, 307 (7)
  53. Crispus caesar, 316 (1)
  54. Constantine II caesar, 316 (2)
  55. Constantius III, 8th February (1)
  56. Justa Gratia Honoria, sister of Valentinian III (1)



Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich   |   Auction 102   |   24 October 2017 Sort by Lot-NumberSort by Estimate
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Lot 577





Estimate: 40'000 CHF   |   Starting price: 32'000 CHF Price realized: 60'000 CHF
Aureus, Antiochia 321–322, AV 5.27 g. DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C Draped and cuirassed bust facing. Rev. IOVI CONSER – VATORI CAES Jupiter seated facing enthroned on platform, holding Victory on globe in r. hand and sceptre in l.; in l. field, eagle with wreath in beak and in r. field, star. The platform inscribed SIC·V· / SIC·X·. In exergue, ·SMANE. C –, cf. 28. RIC 33. Alföldi 252 var. (without star). Depeyrot 38/2. Kent-Hirmer pl. 158, 623. Calicó 5153.
Very rare and in exceptional condition. A magnificent portrait perfectly struck
and centred on a full flan. Virtually as struck and almost Fdc
Ex NAC sale 52, 2009, 602.
The facing portrait on Roman coins was an extremely rare occurrence until the reign of Constantius II, who eventually adopted the form as his standard obverse type at eastern mints. However, the form he used was simplistic in comparison to earlier attempts: the face of the emperor was small and inarticulate, with the true impact of the design being derived from the form and the ornamentation of the armoured, helmeted bust, which could be easily replicated on a large scale. In contrast, this aureus of Licinius represents an impressive attempt to capture the spirit of the emperor as an individual, not merely as a universal being. Four important issues of gold with facing busts were produced from c. 310 to c. 321. The first was by Maxentius on aurei of c. 310-312, and the second by Constantine on solidi of 316; the former was shown bare-headed and bearded, in the guise of a model Tetrarch, the latter was shown nimbate and clean-shaven, as a reflection of his unique brand of monotheism, which embraced solar worship and the Christian faith. Similarities in the style of the two issues make it possible that both were the work of the same artist, who initially worked for Maxentius, and who remained in Italy after Constantine’s takeover and produced a facing-head for his new master. Following these two coinages are the solidi of c. 321 struck for Licinius I and Licinius II, and we should not doubt that they were inspired by one or both of the predecessor issues. The Licinian solidi mark a special event, the taking of imperial vows. The statue of Jupiter rests upon a monumental base inscribed SIC V SIC X, a substitute for the usual votum, in which Licinius II gives thanks for five years of rulership and demonstrates a desire to reign for ten. Equally worthy of comment is the reverse type, on which Jupiter makes one of his last appearances on Roman coinage. This can be seen as evidence of the simmering hostilities between Constantine and Licinius, who not only were co-emperors, but were brothers-in-law. Their rivalry increasingly took on a religious tone, with Constantine now favouring Christianity and Licinius embracing the supreme pagan god – partly because of his own beliefs, partly in opposition to Constantine. Licinius had initially adopted religious ambiguity in 313 as a token of good faith toward Constantine, who early in that year had issued the ‘Edict of Milan’ in both of their names. Here that position is rejected: the inscription describes Jupiter as the protector of Licinius, and the god is represented by an especially powerful and ancient image, seemingly derived from Phidias’ famous gold and ivory statue in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.

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